Step-by-step infrastructure financial modeling structure and output
Regarding infrastructure finance, there are some essential things you need to keep a note of to ensure a successful outcome. This blog post will explore how to structure and build a financial model for an infrastructure project. We will also discuss some of the essential vital outputs you should aim for in your model to assess the project’s viability better. After reading this blog post, you should clearly understand how to get started with infrastructure financial modeling.
Entry of Historical Financial Data
To build an accurate financial model, it is essential to have reliable historical financial data. This data can be sourced from various sources, including annual reports, 10-K filings, and 8-K filings.
Once this data has been gathered, it needs to be entered into the model. This can be done manually or through automated means. If manual entry is used, it is essential to ensure that all data is accurately entered.
Once all of the historical financial data has been entered into the model, it can be used to generate projections for future years. This will allow investors to see how the company will likely perform in its financial condition in the future and make decisions accordingly.
Analysis of Historical Performance
Several factors must be considered to analyze an infrastructure asset’s historical performance. These include:
- The economic environment in which the asset has operated
- The pricing regime under which the asset has operated
- The demand for the services provided by the asset
- The level and quality of maintenance and operations carried out on the asset
Considering all of these factors, it is possible to build a detailed picture of how an infrastructure asset has performed over its lifetime. This information could be helpful to inform the company in making future decision-making about the asset.
Gathering of Assumptions for Forecasting
Assuming that you have gathered all the relevant data for your infrastructure financial model, the next step is to make assumptions for your forecast. This includes macro-level assumptions (e.g., GDP growth) and micro-level assumptions (e.g., traffic growth on a new road).
Your macro-level assumptions should be based on external research and as realistic as possible. For example, if you are forecasting the traffic growth on a new road in the United States, you would want to use historical data on GDP and population growth to develop a realistic range for traffic growth.
Your micro-level assumptions will be more specific to your project. For example, if you are forecasting the traffic growth on a new road in the United States, you would need to make assumptions about what percentage of the population will use the road, what time of day they will use it, etc. These assumptions should be based on your best judgment and understanding of the market.
Forecast the Financial Statements using the Assumptions
Assuming that a company will continue to operate at its current level, you can forecast the financial statements using the assumptions. This includes estimating the revenue and expenses for the upcoming year and projecting the financial statements based on those estimates.
To generate accurate forecasts, you need to understand the drivers of revenue and expenses. For example, if you are forecasting sales, you need to understand what drives sales (e.g., number of customers, average spend per customer). Once you understand the drivers well, you can make reasonable assumptions about how these drivers will change in the future and use them to forecast the financial statements.
Forecasting is essential to remember that it is an art, not a science. Even with a good understanding of the drivers of revenue and expenses, there is always some uncertainty involved in forecasting. As such, it is essential to generate multiple scenarios (e.g., best case, worst case, most likely case) and be prepared to adapt your plans based on actual results.
Future Business Risk Assessment
When it comes to assessing future business risk, several factors need to be considered. This includes things like the current state of the economy, future trends, and the potential for new technologies to disrupt traditional business models.
With this in mind, here are some tips on how to assess future business risk:
- Stay up to date with economic indicators.
- Look for changes in consumer behavior.
- Track industry trends.
- Be aware of disruptive technologies.
- Understand the geopolitical environment.
- Have a contingency plan in place.
Performance of Sensitivity Analysis
A sensitivity analysis is a tool that can help decision-makers understand how input changes can affect a model’s outputs. Sensitivity analyses can be used with any model, but they are handy for financial models because of the large number of input variables that can affect a financial model’s output.
There are two types of sensitivity analyses: one-way sensitivity analyses and two-way sensitivity analyses. One-way sensitivity analyses vary one input simultaneously while holding all other inputs constant. This allows decision-makers to see how sensitive the model is to changes in each input. Two-way sensitivity analyses vary two inputs simultaneously while holding all other inputs constant. This allows decision-makers to see how sensitive the model is to changes in pairs of inputs.
Sensitivity analysis is essential for understanding the risk and uncertainty associated with a financial model. By understanding how sensitive a model is to changes in its inputs, decision-makers can make informed decisions about which inputs are most important to monitor and which outputs are most important to focus on.
Stress Testing of the Forecast
Once the infrastructure has been built and is operational, it is important to stress test the forecast to ensure that it is robust and will stand up to unexpected events. This can be done by running a series of positive and negative scenarios to see how the forecast reacts.
For example, an adverse scenario might be an unexpected drop in demand or a cost rise. An optimistic scenario might be an increase in demand or a decrease in costs. By running these different scenarios, you can better understand your infrastructure investment’s upcoming risks and rewards.
It is also important to stress test your forecast against other forecasts for similar projects. This will give you a sense of how your project stacks up against others and whether there are any areas where you can improve your forecast.